Emily Says . . . . ‘Old Mout Cider’

Old Mout

In her sixth feature under ‘Emily Says . . .’, the voice to the Manchester bar scene in Emily Puckering looks at her favourite Summer cider;

Any bartender will be familiar with the famous brands of fruit cider. Fruit cider, whether one likes it or not, is the nation’s favourite summer time drink and certainly will be for a long time. And with summer creeping around the corner, I thought I’d write up a little something about one of the best brands and what wonderful things this company has to offer… and most importantly, how to pronounce it correctly!

Established 65 years ago in Nelson, New Zealand, Old Mout began on a cycling trip in England. Wanda Tait sampled the traditional local ciders and fell in love instantly. Bringing this love back to NZ, she set up her own cidery in a shed and the infamous company was born.

A couple of young pioneers then took over. Justin and Scottie helped give Old Mout the name they are so famous for with their tantalising and unique fruit flavours, rather than sticking to the traditional apple or pear flavours. The pair were inspired by the beautiful island fruits and went on to develop a range of fruit flavours that would later win them awards and, of course, a step up the ladder in the competitive cider industry.

Today in the UK, Old Mout is slowly but surely becoming a household name. With the strong competitors of Kopparberg and Rekorderlig fruit ciders, it was certainly a gradual process getting the word out about this NZ number. And it still is a gradual process on how to pronounce it correctly…

Its spelling causes understandable confusion. Rather than pronounce it as ‘Mout’, as the spelling suggests, it is in fact pronounced as ‘M-oo-oo-t’. Nor is it pronounced as ‘Moat’ either, which I’ve heard a few times over the bar as I’ve struggled to hold back my laughter.

Old Mout features four very unique flavours over here in the UK:

Kiwi & Lime
Strawberry & Pomegranate
Summer Berries
Passionfruit & Apple

Rather than sticking to the generic ‘Strawberry & Lime’ favourite that dominates most fruit ciders here in Britain, Old Mout have put a twist on the classic flavours of traditional cider. Pairing passionfruit with apple delivers bittersweet notes, and the combination of kiwi and lime gives something truly refreshing. Pomegranate has truly made an appearance in the bar over the last year, and it makes a superb flavour for a cider as Old Mout has proved.

So for this summer, make sure you are equipped with sunglasses and a bottle of Old Mout cider when sitting in your favourite beer garden; the sunshine and the exotic fruits of New Zealand have been brought to the UK!

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Starward

Starward_WineCask_Websize
David Vitale has brought Australian whisky to the UK, using his Melbourne roots and their famed ‘four seasons in a day’ temperature swings. Introducing to you all, Starward.

2007 saw David create the idea of a ‘approachable, affordable Australian whisky – served neat or as a cocktail with food’. Using locally grown brewer’s barley, yeast and water are added to brew and ferment, before distilling using a traditional double distillation process within copper pot stills.

Once drawn off, the spirit enters Australian red wine barrels, the wood still saturated with wine, for the full duration of the maturation period. During this period, Melbourne’s “four seasons in a day” climate means the wood of the barrels expands and contracts more frequently than those say in Scotland or America, resulting in bolder flavours in a shorter space of time. And, unlike Scottish whisky, whilst their whisky matures the alcohol content goes up, not down, something they name the Elemental Maturation.

Two expressions are currently available, seen below, with my tasting notes to accompany –

Starward Solera – 43%

Aged in barrels of around 40-50 years old, formerly containing Apera, which is an Australian take on Spanish sherry.
Rich, ripe stoned fruits of apricot, cherry and hints of strawberry upon the nose. A tart, sharp experience of orange zest, citrus and honeycomb, followed by a long, bold finish of raisin, dried apricot and grape soaked oak.

Starward Wine Cask – 41%

Aged in steamed Australian red wine barrels. Subtle aromas of malt, red grape and dark cocoa upon the nose, followed onto the palate with riper plum, cherry and cinnamon stick flavours. A lingering profile of raspberry and citrus for the finish.

Two fantastic Australian whiskies, and great to see they are versatile to enjoy too –

Starward - Whisky Grapefruit Collins
Whisky Grapefruit Collins

Glass –

Collins

Ingredients –

45 ml Starward Solera
15 ml Aperol
15 ml Lime Juice
20 ml Grapefruit
10 g Sugar

Method –

Shake all ingredients, strain into a tall Collins glass, top up with soda and garnish with mint and lemon.

Two great expressions to enjoy from the land of Oz, with the country really striving for recognition within the whisky world; Stalwart becoming one of the leaders from Down Under. Worth of a place in your drinks cabinet.

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

 

 

Birds

BIRDS-Adventure-Travel-Spirit
“WE ARE JULIAN, LUPO & BASTI – THREE GERMAN GLOBETROTTERS CREATING EXTRA TASTY WINES AND A UNIQUE WINE-BASED CRAFT SPIRIT, INSPIRED BY OUR ADVENTURES AROUND THE WORLD.”

Doesn’t that just intrigue you? Three gentleman, travelling the world and becoming inspired to create wine and spirits? Where do we sign up!

I’ve recently come across their latest spirit expression, so it only seems right to dive in and explore the reasoning behind the three guys and their brand ‘Birds’. Julian, Lupo and Basti set out to counteract what they see as a over saturated gin industry, and create something never before seen. Combining their love of travelling, they set to create BIRDS, ‘a craft brand dedicated to unite the traveller lifestyle with a spirit that brings together German craftsmanship and exotic flavours from all continents.’

In a different route from gin, BIRDS is distilled from German Riesling wine and flavored with a variety of different botanicals, including;

EUROPE;

Orange peel, apple and blackcurrant. 

AFRICA

Clove and jungle pepper. 

ASIA

Star anise and liquorice.

AMERICA

Angelica root, cocoa shell and pink pepper berries. 

AUSTRALIA

Mace and eucalyptus.

BIRDS is produced within an independent micro distillery located between Berlin and Hamburg, itself surrounded by 450 hektars of apple trees. Here they distill their spirit within a copper pot still by Arnold Holstein in small batches of only 700 bottles. To boot, their 7th generation winery is located at the famous Moselle in the south-west of Germany, producer of the Riesling base.

Their Adventure Edition has been tried and tested, so below, I give you my thoughts –

BIRDS Adventure Edition – 42.2%

Rich aromas of soft mint, eucalyptus, liquorice and blackcurrant upon the nose, flowing nicely onto the palate, with the added kick of the Riesling. Pepper dominates alongside cloves and star anise, but soft cocoa makes an appearance near the end.

A fantastic gin, full of flavour! One that will shine within one of these –

Birds-Spirit-Adventure-Ginger-Birds-Illustration-Drink-Kopie-300x300Ginger Birds

Glass – 

Wine

Ingredients – 

40 ml BIRDS Adventure Spirit
20 ml lime juice
150 ml Ginger beer

Method – 

Build all the ingredients over cubed ice and within a wine glass. Garnish with fresh raspberries.

One to have within your drinks cabinet for sure, especially with the spring days coming full force. A delightful tipple that will surprise many!

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Gin Sul

GinSul-WebsizeHamburg may not be the first place you think of for creating gin, but the rules have changed and Gin Sul has made its way to the UK from Hamburg’s only gin distillery!

Masterminded by Stephan Garbe, he was inspired by his time living in Costa Vicentina in south-west Portugal and decided to use the botanicals of the country, including lemons and Rockrose. Unable to create his idea in Portugal itself, he set up in Hamburg to produce a German version of his Portuguese idea, Gin Sul becoming the result.

Produced by hand, fresh lemons are sent over from Portugal, arriving at the distillery on an almost weekly basis. Peeled by hand, the fresh peels are combined with juniper berries, coriander, rosemary, peppers, lavender, cinnamon and gum rockrose (Cistus Ladanifer) amongst others. Small batches of just 100 litres are created each time.

Their distinctive white bottles are made from stoneware, then glazed and screen printed, before being filled by hand. But how does it fare? Well below, I give to you my tasting notes –

Gin Sul – 43%

Fresh zest of the lemons come through immediately upon the nose, followed by dry pepper and subtle lavender. Very soft upon the palate, offering up a waxy lemon peel, rosemary scent and dry pepper dusting. A lingering finish, with a slight heat on the tongue, and fresh juniper kick.

Very different indeed, and one that could work very well within a Martini or Vesper for sure. A talking point for your drinks cabinet, even if it’s the bottle alone before you crack it open.

Genießen!

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Emily Says . . . . ‘John D. Taylor’s Velvet Falernum’

Velvet Green Martini

In her fourth feature under ‘Emily Says . . .’, the voice to the Manchester bar scene in Emily Puckering looks at the Barbadian classic from John D. Taylor;

Coming from a bartenders experience, rum is one of the most frequently ordered drinks, whether drinking it neat, with a mixer, or as many find themselves doing, searching for the perfect rum based cocktail.

But this Caribbean classic has much more to offer than one would expect. The creation of rum all the way back in the 17th century was spurred along by plantation slaves, of whom discovered that a by-product of the sugar refining process could be fermented into alcohol.

Putting aside the technical talk, rum allowed the production of many rum-based liqueurs that were yet to come in the future of alcohol. One of these rum-based products is John D. Taylor’s Velvet Falernum, created in Barbados some time between 1830-1930.

A beautiful blend of lime zest, sugar, ginger, cloves and pure Barbadian white rum, John D. Taylor truly created a true specimen of the 18th-19th century Barbados bar culture. Velvet Falernum offers drinkers a much smoother and sweeter experience, particularly for those who may want to avoid the rich spices of classic rum. Standing at only 11% volume however, Velvet Falernum is perfect in the use of mixology, and has even been considered a syrup rather than a liqueur due to its sweet properties.

Today in the bartending world, Velvet Falernum is well known for its usage in classics such as the Rum Swizzle, Mai Tai, Zombie and the Corn N’ Oil. But for something a bit different, Velvet Falernum plays a key role in one of these exquisite creations:

Velvet Green Martini 2

Velvet Green Martini

Glass – Martini

Ingredients –
25ml egg white
15ml lemon juice
7.5ml kiwi syrup
25ml apple juice
15ml Velvet Falernum
15ml Briottet Apple Liqueur
15ml Tanqueray Export

Method – Pour all ingredients into a boston glass, add ice and hard shake to create a thick head on the finishing result.

Garnish – Mint sprig and a pipette of chlorophyll for an ombre effect.

The Velvet Green Martini delivers a, as the title suggests, a velvety smooth drinking experience. The egg white creates the silky texture which compliments the name of this drink perfectly. Sugar syrup is not as vital as would be usually due to the sweet notes of Velvet Falernum, complementing the sweet and crisp aromas of apple and kiwi that are present in the drink. Velvet Falernum not only works beautifully with rum, but with various different spirits as the Velvet Green proves clearly.

When making this drink, I must say around 9 times out of 10, many will recoil at the thought of chlorophyll being added to their drink. Just to clarify, chlorophyll mustn’t be mistaken for chloroform. Chlorophyll is a tasteless and odourless plant extract that is used purely for appearance. Its dark colour creates an ombre effect, which is truly pleasing for the eyes, as well as the taste buds.

Credit and copyright:
The Botanist

Emily Says . . . . ‘The Espresso Martini’

Espresso Martini

In her third feature under ‘Emily Says . . .’, the voice to the Manchester bar scene in Emily Puckering looks at the ever faithful Espresso Martini;

A cocktail that has never gone out of fashion: the Espresso Martini. A simply timeless concoction of vodka paired with espresso, this number is the go-to at the bar for a little ‘pick me up’. But how did this infamous creation come about in the bartending scene?

Rumour has it that the Espresso Martini was created in the early 1980s by London bartender Dick Bradsel whilst working at the Soho Brasserie. According to Dick himself, the story goes that a famous female model visited the bar and asked him to get her a drink that will ‘pick me up then fuck me up’. Not a request a bartender gets every day, that’s for sure! The Espresso Martini was born after Dick put together some vodka and sugar with a shot of espresso from the bars shiny new espresso machine. Revolutionary.

The growing popularity of the espresso machine in the 1980s spurred along the name of the Espresso Martini. Even to this very day, this timeless little number never fails to make an appearance in the life of a bartender. Whether it is being enjoyed as a post-dinner treat or fuelling a late night, there is always a suitable time for the Espresso Martini.

In my four and a half years of bartending, I’ve come across several different recipes in making the perfect Espresso Martini. Here is the recipe I personally have found to truly shake up something beautiful:

Glassware –
Martini

Ingredients –
1 bar spoon of fresh honey
25ml sugar syrup
25ml Café Patron XO
50ml Belvedere Vodka
1 shot of espresso

Method –
Pour all ingredients into a boston glass. Add ice and hard shake to ensure a thick head on the finishing product; the Espresso Martini is all about the foam! Double strain into a chilled martini glass.

Garnish – three single coffee beans.

The addition of fresh honey truly gives a smoother touch to the Espresso Martini, complimenting beautifully the smooth finish of Belvedere vodka.
Usually, the usage of any coffee liqueur is suitable in the creation of this particular drink. I, however, feel that the use of Patron’s own coffee tequila, Café Patron XO gives an exclusive touch, and certainly brings out the caffeine kick that we coffee lovers are looking for. For those true coffee enthusiasts, however, the replacement of Café Patron XO with a double espresso will work just fine.

A cocktail that one can truly not go wrong with, and a cocktail that will never go out of style: The Espresso Martini, here to pick you up… then fuck you up.

Neptune

Neptune

“Many are the ships wrecked due to Neptune’s wrath. Drink to his better nature and pray that his storms are stilled”.

I do love a good marketing slogan! They capture the brand in one or two sentences, and with the above coming from Neptune rum, you don’t half expect something to blow you away! With this, Neptune has arrived to the UK shores like a breath of fresh air, offering up a rum that is distilled and aged at the renowned Foursquare Rum Distillery within the former 17th century sugarcane plantation in Barbados.

Launched after the first bottle run in May 2017, Richard Davies has created a liquid that mixes both pot and column still variations before being aged within American bourbon oak barrels for a full 3 years. Neptune is then transported to the UK at 63% abv before soft water added to reduce its strength down to 40% abv and caramel to enhance the colour before bottling.

It’s already picking up some fanfare in the awards world, winning Silver in both the Spirits Masters in 2017 and New York World Wine and Spirits, plus picking up a Gold Medal at the China Wine and Spirits Awards earlier in the year.

Question is though, how does it fare? Well below, I give to you my tasting notes –

Neptune – 40%

A light, tangy note of fresh banana, vanilla and subtle citrus. A soft kick of caramel comes through to the palate, followed by  ripe green fruits, scented orange oils and a fresh lick of molasses. A long, thin finish that makes you grab the bottle for another.

A great Barbadian rum on its own, but how about a variation on the Manhattan for a twist on your rum experience?

cocktails-1Neptune’s Due

Glass –

Martini

Ingredients –

60 ml Neptune Rum
15 ml Sweet Vermouth
2-3 Dashes Angostura Bitters
Maraschino Cherry

Method –

Pour all ingredients into a mixing glass with ice, stir well and strain into a chilled cocktail glass. Garnish with a Maraschino cherry.

One for the rum collection for sure, versatile and you’ll be in love with the story and label. ‘Drink it on a boat’ sort of rum!

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2018. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

 

Emily Says . . . . ‘Budvar Hoptails’

The Budweis Mule

In her second feature under ‘Emily Says . . .’, the voice to the Manchester bar scene in Emily Puckering looks at Budvar Hoptails: The Budweis Mule;

The beauty of mixology is having the freedom to mix whatever one likes in order to create the perfect drink. And who says one must stick to just spirits in this art?
The art of mixing beer with classic cocktail ingredients is ever growing in the bartending industry today. More and more concoctions are being created, all with the one compound in common; beer. Whether it’s a lager, a pale ale or even a cask, beer is the key ingredient in creating something rather special in the competitive world of mixology.

You don’t have to be a qualified beer guru to have heard of Budweiser Budvar, one of the world’s most famous beer brand. Most commonly known for its infamous pale lager, Budweiser Original, the Budvar brand dates back centuries; all the way back to 1265 to be precise. The town České Budějovice of Czech Republic was founded by Ottokar II, the King of Bohemia, and was granted many important privileges; one of which being able to brew beer. And so the story begins.

The year of 1872 welcomed the export of beer from České Budějovice to the United States, strongly spurred along by millions of Czech locals relocating to the states for a better life; and bringing their thirst for beer with them!
Since then, Budvar has become a global sensation. And it is this global popularity that has introduced Budvar Hoptails; a platform that showcases the greatest beer cocktail creations that bartenders across the world have created.

The Budweis Mule 2

The Budweis Mule: a fiery twist on the classic Moscow Mule.

Glass – Tankard

Ingredients –
2 dashes of Angostura Bitters
Fresh lemon thyme
Fresh ginger
15ml sugar syrup
20ml lemon juice
15ml Cointreau
30ml Tanqueray Export Gin
Bottle of Budweiser Budvar Original

Method –

Firstly, muddle in the lemon thyme and ginger with the sugar syrup and lemon juice in a boston glass – in order to achieve the best flavour! Add the Angostura bitters, Cointreau and Tanqueray and shake hard with plenty of ice.
Single strain over cubed ice, and top with the bottle of Budweiser Budvar Original. Garnish with a lemon thyme sprig and lemon zest.

This exclusive creation was stirred up by Jonah Robertshawe. Coming all the way from Sydney, Australia, Jonah has brought his Australian expertise to Manchester’s bartending scene, where he currently resides at The Botanist. From taking part in the Budvar Hoptails national competition, Jonah’s creation earned himself a name in Budvar and the sales of the Budweis Mule in Botanists across the country, and here is what he has to say about his concoction:

“I’ve always been a big fan of the Moscow Mule style cocktails, but I wanted to work with the flavour of the saarz hops in the Budvar using complimentary spirits, which is the Tanqueray gin, which are then backed up by the citrus notes of Cointreau.”
“However, I didn’t want to stray too far away from the classic Moscow Mule. So rather than ginger beer, I paired together fresh ginger and lemon thyme so the essential flavour of the Mule wasn’t lost”.

The fiery essence of the ginger beautifully complements the bitter-sweet bite that the drink delivers. Rather than sticking to the traditional Mule spec by using vodka, Tanqueray Export gin has been used purely for its floral aroma, which balances the hoppy and fragrant Budweiser Budvar perfectly.
An admirable creation from Jonah Robertshawe, The Budweis Mule offers a tantalising and sensual drinking experience, and certainly something that will be very hard to come by anywhere else.

Credit and copyright:
Budvar Hoptails
Budweiser Budvar Original
The Botanist

Emily Says . . . . “Liqueur de Coquelicot”

Poppy & Pomegranate Martini 2
New to Drinks Enthusiast, a voice to the Manchester bar scene in Emily Puckering, a bartender by heart who looks at the ever growing love of spirits, cocktails and beer. Her first post under ‘Emily Says . . .’ for the site looks at Liqueur de Coquelicot;

The French family firm that is Maison Briottet has been producing its world famous liqueurs since 1836, and has truly left its mark upon the liquor industry today. Initially beginning as a wine establishment, Briottet became famous for their creation of Crème De Cassis; the universal go-to blackcurrant liqueur. As the years went by and their business expanded, Briottet began the production of flavoured liqueurs and fine spirits.

Now, in 2018, Briottet sells its fine products across 26 different countries and holds a range of over 61 liqueurs, 8 eux de vie and 4 fine spirits. It has become the bartenders ‘go-to’ in flavoured liqueurs, particularly in mixology.

Briottet have truly pushed the boat out with their exclusive Liqueur de Coquelicot; a poppy seed infused liqueur. The wild poppy flower comes from the subfamily Papaveroidease, of the family Papaveracease. Putting aside the technical talk, the poppy liqueur offers a crisp yet subtly sweet taste, initially created as a pre-dinner drink to be mixed with a sparkling wine.

In fact, the poppy flavour originates and is inspired from a French confectionery from 1872, back when the master confectioner Desserey started making poppy flavoured pastilles. They very quickly became a speciality of Northern France, which heightened the popularity of the poppy flower in the world of food and drink.

A fresh and tantalising mixture of the poppy flower, Liqueur de Coquelicot offers the perfect balance between subtle dry notes, alongside a kick of sweetness; making it the perfect counterpart in the art of mixology.

Poppy & Pomegranate Martini
Liqueur de Coquelicot features beautifully in the Poppy & Pomegranate Martini; an exquisite creation from The Botanist.

Glass – Martini

Ingredients –
25ml Egg White
15ml Lemon Juice
7.5ml Basil Sugar Syrup
25ml Pomegranate Juice
15ml Absolut Raspberry Vodka
15ml Briottet Framboise
15ml Briottet Coquelicot
Garnish – Viola Flower

Method – Pour all ingredients into a Boston glass, hard shake, then go on to double strain into a chilled martini glass.

The Poppy & Pomegranate Martini delivers a beautifully crisp drink, with complimentary notes of the sweetness of raspberry and the bitter-sweet aromas of pomegranate. Egg white is the key ingredient in achieving the silky texture, which truly makes this cocktail such a delight. The presence of Liqueur de Coquelicot makes this number the perfect pre-dinner cocktail.

A truly beautiful concoction from the Briottet family, and one that will surely be seen much more in the world of mixology.

Pick up a bottle of Liqueur de Coquelicot for your drinks cabinet.

Image Copyright: Nick Whitby at The Botanist, New World Trading Company 2017

Palmers

Palmers

Langley Distillery is famous for the production of many a famous gin tipple, including the aptly named Langley’s, Martin Millers and Broker’s. Third-party contracts have always been the name of the game for the Birmingham based company, but now they’ve decided to branch out and create their own tipple, defined by its heritage and history of the Palmer family.

The Palmers heritage can trace itself back to 1805 in Old Street, London, where the family varnish business were to be founded by William Henry Palmer. Once passed onto his son Walter, the business started to transition into alcohol production, which set the foundations for the company as we know it today with current great-grand daughter Angela, along with her husband, sparking the voyage into gin creation.

Taking the Crosswells Brewery site, itself dating from the early 1800’s and built over an ancient underground water source, the brewery changed itself into a distillery in 1920 and has some of the oldest working copper gin stills in the UK, some of which date back to the early 1800’s!

Palmers gin has been created with Angela in mind, which they say is “infused with Angela’s zest and love for life.” The gin itself has within a blend of 7 botanicals (juniper berries, coriander seeds, cassia bark, liquorice root, angelica root, orris root and grapefruit), the exact recipe of which is kept close to Angela’s son Adam and granddaughter Natalie. Each botanical is weighed out by hand and placed into the aptly-named copper still ‘Angela’ (commissioned in 1903) in a specific order, alongside water and British wheat spirit. The resulting mix if left to infuse overnight.

But how does it fare? Well below, I give to you my tasting notes –

Palmers – 44%

Light, subtle notes of lavender, parmer violet and grapefruit zest upon the nose, following onto the palate with a smooth start. Orange twist, with hints of waxy lemon, liquorice and an undertone of earthy notes, resulting in a warm kick of juniper berry.

A cracking gin on its own, but one that’s also worthy to be within one of these –

Palmers - White Lady
White Lady

Glass –

Martini

Ingredients – 

35ml Palmers London Dry Gin
25ml Cointreau
25ml Freshly Squeezed Lemon Juice
25ml Sugar Syrup
Lemon Twist to garnish

Method – 

Combine all ingredients within an ice filled mixing glass and stir. Strain into a Martini glass and garnish with lemon twist.

A superb gin that really shows off the history and dedication that Langley’s have had, and have finally put their stamp on their own gin to rival the very many they have created for others over the years. One for the drinks cabinet for sure.

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2017. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.