Nardini Raises The Bar For Grappa

Selezione Bortoli Nardini

Nardini, Italy’s oldest distillery, is launching an ultra-premium grappa range aimed at setting a new quality threshold for the country’s national spirit. Called ‘Selezione Bortolo Nardini’ in honour of the distiller who founded the family-owned brand in 1779, the new line includes an elegant ‘Bianca Extrafina’ and ‘Le Ramate’ – three extraordinary barrel-aged Riserva products.

All four drinks are blended from Merlot, Cabernet and Pinot Grigio grape pomaces selected from local DOC winemakers and distilled using Nardini’s distinct combination of pot still and column still techniques. Conceived to rank alongside the best spirits in the high-end digestive market sector, they are presented in stunning 70cl cut-glass bottle designs, inspired by Nardini’s futuristic Fuksas-designed ‘BOLLE’ building in Bassano del Grappa, Veneto.

The ‘Selezione Bortolo Nardini’ is the splendid result of a 20-year labour-of-love led by the Nardini Family alongside Master Blender Renato Mazzeracca and Andrea Manzoli, who directs operations the two Nardini distilleries in Bassano and Monastier. Consequently, as the international spirits authority David Broom observed in his pre-launch evaluation, all four grappas are ‘unmistakably Nardini’, showing clear family resemblances with the firm’s legendary Bianca and Riserva staples. However, they display ‘a wider, fresher, more tantalising aromatic spectrum’.

Rested in steel tanks for six months before blending and then rested for another six months before undergoing a further selection process, the 42% abv ‘Extrafina’ is floral and very fruity, with herbal elements and a nuanced complexity amplified with notes of banana, maraschino and ‘proving bread’. As Dave Broom confirms, ‘there is something both ancient in its aromatics and something entirely new’. The three ‘Le Ramate’ products are equally remarkable. Following the initial one year resting in steel, all three are aged in barrels sourced from the same oak forest in Slavonia (Croatia) that has been used by Nardini since it became the first-ever distiller to market aged grappa some 70 years ago. However, only the smoothest and sweetest batches from these barrels are ear-marked for the Le Ramate range.

The 42% abv Three-Year-Old Riserva is coherent, complex and refined, showing a clear sweetness as well as the ‘cooked fruit’ characteristics that have made Nardini’s core 40% and 50% Riserva products so popular, especially in export markets. At 45% abv, the Seven-Year-Old Riserva is more extravagant and spicy, but equally complex and Dave Broom has noted similarities with Cognac and even aged Genever. Not surprisingly, the 15-Year-Old Riserva is more wooded, but it’s also drier, with hints of creamy vanilla, chocolate, nuts and wild fruits – a superbly balanced drink. As Dave Broom concludes, ‘like the rest of the range, it does, I believe, offer a new dimension for grappa, one which stays true to its roots, but aligns it more closely with top-end wood-aged spirits – and as a result opens up the possibilities of new serves and occasions.’

Antonio Nardini, Managing Director of the seventh-generation family owned company believes the new ‘Selezione Bortolo Nardini’ is a major milestone for grappa and not just for Nardini. “As Italy’s oldest distiller and the country’s leading premium grappa brand, we are obliged to innovate rather than stand still. Since we only produce for ourselves and never for third parties, we apply much stricter criteria to the quality of the raw materials we use and the production techniques we employ.” Adds Nardini: “With the new range we have demonstrated our ability to produce elegant, exquisite distillates – and I am confident that we have set a new standard for grappa that will not only astonish many people, but lead to a greater appreciation for Italy’s national spirit amongst the most discerning drinkers in the world.”

UK Availability
In the UK, ‘Selezione Bortolo Nardini’ will be available initially to the on-trade from Speciality Drinks with on-line availability from The Whisky Exchange, The Drink Shop and Master of Malt. Hedonism Wines in Mayfair is the range’s opening retail outlet in London, while in the North-West, it is being showcased at the award-winning Riddles Emporium in Altrincham, South Manchester. UK Distributor is Emporia Brands. The agent for the UK and Ireland is Nick Hopewell-Smith Associates Ltd. Products in the range are likely to retail at between £55 and £125. Nardini’s 50% ABV Grappa Bianca is by some way Italy’s best-selling premium grappa. In the UK, the more accessible Bianca 40 and Riserva 40 are listed as house pours in many leading outlets, including the Polpo chain and across the Soho House estate. In 2017, sales of Nardini products in the UK grew by 40% compared to the previous twelve months.

Background Note: The Best Grappa Demands Pomace Excellence
The quality of any grappa is largely dictated by the quality of the raw material used to make it – the pomace (the skins, seeds and pulp that remains after grapes are pressed for winemaking). In the ‘Selezione Bortolo’ range, the pomace is derived from a balanced selection of grape types rather than from a single variety, which assists Nardini to achieve an optimum condition for the pomace mix prior to distillation. Red wine grapes provide much of the flavour, but the more lightly-pressed white wine grapes add vital moisture to the final blend. Quality is further guaranteed by ensuring that winemakers only supply pomace derived from de-stemmed grapes. For Nardini, fresh pomaces and a fully-controlled initial fermentation immediately prior to the distillation process – whether by pot or column still – are considered critical elements of the production process. At Nardini’s distilleries, some 22 kilos of pomace are needed to produce a single litre of grappa. Importantly, prior to distillation, unlike the custom with many other grappa producers, no sugar or yeast are deployed to boost fermentation, nor is any water used to moisten the pomaces. Demineralised water is only added after distillation to achieve the desired alcohol level. In the case of ‘Le Ramate’ products, this takes place prior to their final blending.

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The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress Launches ‘Bassano Aperitivo Season’

Mezzoemezzo 1_Low Res

Pop-up innovators Bassano Events and their Manchester venue, The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress located on First Street, are launching a tasting calendar of Italian aperitivo over the next two months.

Focusing on Distilleria Nardini, the namesake of the bar name Bassano with its origins from Bassano del Grappa in Northern Italy, guests will enjoy one of the famous serves originating from the iconic Ponte Vecchio bridge distillery, the Mezzoemezzo, itself combined with soda and a twist of lemon. A closer look at the flavour profiles of Nardini Grappa Bianca 40 and a selection of their liqueurs, including the citrus peels of Acqua di Cedro, juniper led Ginepro and the almond profiles of Mandorla.

Each session looks to finish with a refreshing Nardini Ginepro and Tonic, as well as a classic offering of Italian Antipasto courtesy of PizzaExpress.

Each hosted by Dave Marsland, co-owner of Bassano Events and brand agency Drinks Enthusiast, the Bassano Aperitivo Season is said to demystify the Italian spirit category, showing off the tradition of grappa and aperitivo and its versatile use within simple mixers and flavours.

All sessions will be held within The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress, itself opening in June 2017 to bring the modern Italian cocktail bar concept to the North of England after it follows last summer’s successful debut for The Bassano Bar and its winning Italian drinks formula within the busy ‘Magic Roundabout’ venue in London’s Shoreditch.

Offering a selected menu that combines a focus on classic Italian cocktails such as the Negroni with Campari, Aperol Spritz, Nardini Mezzoemezzo and Frizzante Frutta with San Pellegrino, the bar is also including innovative home-grown recipes, with the ‘The Haçienda Sour’ and ‘The Manchester Negroni’ featuring local gin producer, Three Rivers.

Dates of the Bassano Aperitivo Season;

18th August
25th August
31st August
7th September
21st September
28th September

Price;
£15 pp – tickets can be purchased in venue or via http://www.thebassanobar.com

General Opening Hours;
Wednesday-Friday from 5pm – 11pm and from 12noon to 11pm on Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays.

Address;
The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress, First Street North, Manchester, M15 4FN

#BassanoMcr

ALL DRINK IMAGERY BY GEORGIE GLASS/ WWW.GEORGIEGLASS.CO.UK / @GEORGIEGLASS_

The Bassano Bar and PizzaExpress To Partner Up in Manchester This Summer

Spiced Nigroni 1_Low Res

The nation’s favourite restaurant chain PizzaExpress and pop-up innovators Bassano Events have joined together to bring ‘The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress’ to Manchester. Opening June 21st at PizzaExpress’s First Street restaurant, the modern Italian cocktail bar concept will be a first for the North of England after it follows last summer’s successful debut for The Bassano Bar and its winning Italian drinks formula within the busy ‘Magic Roundabout’ venue in London’s Shoreditch.

Offering a selected menu that combines a focus on classic Italian cocktails such as the Negroni with Campari, Aperol Spritz, Nardini Mezzoemezzo and Frizzante Frutta with San Pellegrino, the bar is also including innovative home-grown recipes, with the ‘The Haçienda Sour’ and ‘The Manchester Negroni’ featuring local gin producer, Three Rivers.

Augmenting the much-loved and increasingly broad PizzaExpress menu, The Bassano Bar is keen to promote a range of traditional Italian drinks, including grappa, Italy’s much under-rated national spirit. Originating from Bassano del Grappa in the Veneto region, Nardini is Italy’s most prestigious grappa brand, with the distiller’s home town providing the inspiration for the name of the bar.

Working alongside PizzaExpress, owners of Bassano Events Dave Marsland and Nick Hopewell-Smith have taken the opportunity to bring a flavour of Italian serves to the terrace of First Street, Pizza Express’ newest restaurant in the city, located in one of Manchester’s most dynamic leisure areas.

Dave is a well-known drinks expert and trainer, creating brand agency ‘Drinks Enthusiast’ in 2011, with his own spirits retail business in Altrincham and a national social media and publication presence as a drinks journalist.  A marketing professional with over 35 years experience, Nick is the initiator and creative driver behind The Bassano Bar in London and a specialist importer of Italian spirits and liqueurs from The Nardini Distillery.

With an al-fresco feel to the venue, making use of its natural light and, hopeful, Summer months, The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress will be a welcome addition to the Manchester bar scene.

Opening Hours;

Wednesday-Friday from 5pm – 11pm and from 12noon to 11pm on Saturdays, Sundays and Bank Holidays. 

Address;

The Bassano Bar @ PizzaExpress, First Street North, Manchester, M15 4FN

Image by Georgie Glass / www.georgieglass.co.uk / @georgieglass_

For The Love of Italy: Giuseppe, Simone, Davide.

London Sessions
Just received this from the ever popular London Sessions, and one of my brands will be in attendance with Guiseppe Gallo in Nardini Rabarbaro and Amaro, so if you’re a bartender, what more of an excuse do you need to go?!

Introducing For the Love of Italy, an ode to all things Italian with three of our favourite, most talented and well… most Italian… Italians. The London Sessions 23rd Session will be held at The House of Peroni from 2pm – 4pm with Giuseppe Gallo, Simone Caporale and Davide Segat. There will be cocktails created by the trio, pizza, Peroni Nastro Azzurro, and as always, it’s free. To RSVP just reply to rebekkah@rebekkahdooley.com NOW. RSVPs are accepted on a first come, first served basis so be quick.

THE ITALIANS

Widely regarded as one of the worlds foremost vermouth experts, Giuseppe Gallo of Italys Amalfi Coast has worked (and excelled) in pretty much every role within the bar industry, inspired as a child by his mothers home made Limoncello. In 2014 he was recognised as Best International Brand Ambassador by Tales of The Cocktail, and during his 20 years of working with alcohol has been profiled by the Sunday Times, The Telegraph, Imbibe, Vanity Fair, Wall Street Journal and PEOPLE. Currently he serves on the Spirited Awards Judging Panel and is the Founding Director of Ital Spirits.

Simone Caporale landed in London from Como, Italy in 2009. Just five years later he was awarded International Bartender of the Year at Tales of The Cocktail 2014, the same year Artesian took home the Best International Hotel Bar, Best International Bar Team and the coveted World’s Best Bar accolades, as well as the Drink’s International World’s Best Bar award, which, under Simone and Alex Kratena’s careful watch, they’ve won 2012 – 2015 inclusive. His trophy cabinet must need reinforcing. Simone joins us fresh from launching his newest project p(our) in Paris with Alex Kratena and Monica Berg.

Portogruaro native Davide Segat learnt his trade in some of London’s most illustrious establishments before opening the London EDITION, where he meticulously runs both the Lobby Bar and multi award winning Punch Room. At the Connaught he was taught the classical arts of bartending (how to mix a Martini and flirt with your girlfriend whilst you’re in the bathroom) before moving to Miami to learn his way around a blender, and at Green and Red was taught everything about tequila and some other stuff that he can’t really remember. After two years at Hawksmoor he accepted the job of Bar Manager at The Bulgari Hotel in Knightsbridge. This year he’s mainly been travelling the world making Punch for the likes of PDT, Candelaria and Dead Rabbit.

 

Guiseppe Gallo And Bar Termini Present: Cafe Italia

Bar Termini Logo

London Cocktail Week Hub at Spitalfields Market
Thursday 8 October – Saturday 10 October 2015
Open from 12 midday to 9.30pm everyday

The authority on Italian spirits Giuseppe Gallo has joined forces with Bar Termini, London’s most authentic Italian coffee and cocktail bar co-founded by pioneering drinks creator Tony Conigliaro, to create Café Italia, the ultimate Italian coffee and cocktail destination at this year’s London Cocktail Week.

Café Italia will launch on Thursday 8 October 2015 for 3 days only, at the London Cocktail Week hub in Spitalfields, to showcase the finest Italian spirits, serve outstanding Italian coffee, and celebrate the revered tradition of Aperitivo and Digestivo. Through three exclusive masterclasses, guests are able to learn the secrets of Italy’s leading spirits and liqueurs.

LA DOLCE VITA

The intimate pop-up can host up to 20 people at any one time and will reflect the set up of Bar Termini; an intimate and refined space, stocked with bottles of carefully selected Italian amaro, liqueurs and vermouth, as well as rare Italian spirits that are not available in the UK.

From midday, baristas will be onsite serving the famed Bar Termini espressos alongside biscotti, and later in the afternoon exceptional bartenders will honour Aperitivo Hour with carefully curated cocktails and small bites. The cocktail list, including traditional classics like the negroni and martini, will be sure to impress after being handpicked collaboratively by the team at Bar Termini.

ITALIAN DRINKS EXPERT

With 20 years experience building his impressive wealth of knowledge of Italian spirits, Gallo will host 3 bespoke masterclasses for London’s drinks trade in conjunction with team members from award-winning Bar Termini. From vermouth to amaro, Aperitivo to Digestivo, tradition to innovation, the north of Italy to the south, these masterclasses will offer invaluable insight into the elegant world of Italian spirits.

Entry to each of the 45-minute masterclasses is free, however with limited spaces – guests will be allocated space on a first come, first served basis.

2pm, Thursday 8 October 2015
Coffee cocktails; The Italian Favourites

Discover Italy’s favourite drinking occasions, hosted by Giuseppe Gallo and Marco Arrigo, cofounder of Bar Termini. In this seminar you will learn everything from the coffee bean to cup, through the classic serves such as café corretto and espresso martini. Only for coffee lovers!

2pm, Friday 9 October 2015
Story & tales of the Italian Aperitivo

The Italian Aperitivo is more than a drink, it is a moment; experience this with host Giuseppe Gallo and Roberta Mariani from Bar Termini. From the Romans all the way through to modern culture, discover a journey into the Italian drinking culture with a unique tasting of rare spirits from Italy.

2pm, Saturday 10 October 2015
Amaro per Amore: The Bitter Love

Learn about the next big thing, Amaro, by the best in the business; Giuseppe Gallo and Zoe Burgess, Head of Research & Development at Drink Factory. The most complex taste is BITTER. This is an opportunity to learn about science behind the bitter taste, how it is perceived in our brain and what botanicals are essentials in crafting the Italian liqueurs.

Located at London Cocktail Week’s east London hub at Spitalfields Market, don’t miss out on this incredible opportunity to experience the best of Italy, right here in central London.

Nardini

Nardini

This year I’ve dabbled a little into the low ABV scale of the drinks world, due mainly in part to Mal Spence, owner of the Kelvingrove Cafe in Glasgow. He partnered with Emporia Brands, a UK distribution company, to promote their range of Italian products, primarily from the Nardini family, to bartenders and have them take a deeper look into the use of these classic liquids within drink recipes. Going off this, I wanted to feature the Nardini range and take a look at both the grappa and aperitivo expressions they have available. So lets dive in!

It all begins with Bortolo Nardini, founder of what is now Italy’s oldest distillery way back in 1779. It is here at the entrance to the Bassano bridge on the river Brenta that he opened his distillery and grapperia. Nardini was already skilled in the art of distillation, but his new venture was a far cry from his home town of Segonzano in the Cembra Valley near Trento. Here at the Bassano bridge, it was, like it still is now, a meeting place for Bassano natives and everyone who crossed what is described as the ‘most famous patriotic bridge in Italy’.

Looking ahead, Bortolo Nardini, grandson of Bortolo, introduced steam distillation in 1860, replacing the direct flame technique used from the beginning. Between 1915 and 1918, the First World War was taking effect on the area, becoming a battleground for soldiers. However the grappa distillery of Nardini saw its popularity rise as the soldiers took to the liquid to warm them on the cold evenings in the trenches. Once the war ended, the ritual of a sip of grappa carried on. The Second World War would be different however, as the frequent requisitioning of grappa by the armed forces and the complete destruction of the Bassano bridge by the Germans as they retreated affected the distillery and its production. After the war, the Alpini soldiers rebuilt the bridge financed entirely by private funds and re-opened on October 3rd 1948, by Alcide De Gasperi, and christened with a bottle of Nardini for good luck.

With the war over, the 1950’s saw a change in attitude towards spirits. Gone were the sweet liquids, to be replaced by drier tipples such as grappa. Nardini took full advantage and created new markets within Italy and abroad. Nardini also introduced ageing of grappa in oak barrels, to positive acclaim within the market. In 1964, vacuum distillation was installed within the distillery and in 1981 a new bottling centre was built. In 1991, Nardini purchased and refurbished the distillery of Monastier, near Treviso, where a substantial part of the distillation now takes place to satisfy the growing demand.

So with two distilleries, both located in the Veneto region, they both offer a different side to the Nardini family. Both sites use fresh grape pomace (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Bianco and Tokay) that is carefully selected and sourced from the foothills of north Veneto and Friuli. After a resting period in silos, the fermentation process begins. From here, it is transported to both distilleries.

The original Bassano distillery use the traditional vacuum distillation method in a discontinuous cycle. Here, within cauldrons, steam flows through the fermented grape pomace and up through the distillation column. Once the ‘heart’ of the spirit is selected, it passes through rectification and condensation phases.
The Monastier distillery on the other hand is a little different. The distillation method is a continuous steam cycle where the pomace is placed in a dealcolizer through which vapor passes for the extraction of the alcoholic content. This then flows to the distillation column where the ‘heart’ of the liquid is chosen, then passes on to the rectification and condensation phases.

So let’s get stuck into the finished products! Below, I give to you my tasting notes –

The Nardini Grappa Expressions
The Nardini Grappa Expressions

Nardini Aquavite di Vinnaccia Bianca Grappa – 50%

As mentioned, obtained by the process of double distillation and cold filtering using the pomace of grapes harvested in the Veneto foothills and Friuli regions of Italy.
Soft grape aromas on the nose, fragrant with hints of marzipan. Sharp and intense upon the palate, with a fresh kick of fragrant grape flavours once swallowed. The high abv contributes to a medium to long finish that becomes a little dry.

Nardini Grappa 40 – 40%

A lower abv variation of the above classic grappa expression. Bolder aromas of the grapes compared to the 50% abv style on the nose. Sweeter on the palate, and lacks the sharpness from the classic. Smooth, with hints of dry spice and raw herb. Long finish.

Nardini Aquavite di Vinnaccia Riserva Grappa – 50%

Aged for a minimum of three years in Slavonian oak barrels. Fragrant on the nose with subtle smooth aromas of the pommace. A developing strength of thin grape flavours on the palate, with plenty of dry oak taming the palate for a well-rounded finish.

Nardini Grappa Riserva 40 – 40%

A lower abv variation of the above Riserva grappa expression. Very light on the nose, with delicate hints of the grapes coming through. Incredibly smooth on the palate, thin, with definite soft oak to offer a long finish.

Nardini Aquavite di Vinnaccia Riserva 15 Anni Grappa – 50%

Released in 2004 to celebrate 225 years of the company’s history. An exclusive product obtained by aging in Salvonian oak barrels for 15 years.
Soft wood with citrus and grape aromas blending on the nose. Dry oak on the palate, with tobacco and cocoa developing to a soft and incredibly long finish.

Nardini Aquavite di Vinnaccia Ruta Flavoured Grappa – 43%

Created using an antique recipe of infusion. Aquavite grape pomace grappa combines with branches of the rue plant that are infused within rue flavoured grappa for an unknown length of time.
Soft, light herbal notes from the rue plant on the nose. Intense upon the palate, with a dry and slightly bitter experience developing as it nears the lingering finish.

It’s not just grappa that the Nardini family are famous for though, a selection of aperitivo’s are also wildly acclaimed.

Nardini Ginepro del Grappa – 45%

Created from distilled dehydrated juniper berries. Plenty of fresh, fragrant, intense juniper berry aromas on the nose. Incredibly sweet upon the palate, velvet texture with the high abv creating a delicate juniper finish. Lingering.

Nardini Acqua di Cedro – 29%

Traditional citron based liqueur. Fragrant, sweet citrus notes on the nose. Thick, creamy texture on the palate, with plenty of fresh, ripe, zesty lemon flavours coming through. A sweet, long finish with a slight raw citrus feel.

Nardini alla Mandorla – 50%

Natural infusion of bitter almond with Aquavite di Vinaccia combined with a cherry distillate. A good blend of dry almond and stalked cherry on the nose. Developing warmth on the palate, with the almond flavours dominating. The cherry comes through on the slightly sweet finish, but ultimately both main flavours contribute to a dry, lingering finish.

Nardini Tagliatella – 35%

“La Tagliatella” is a registered trademark by Nardini, creating a fruity liqueur with an Aquavite di vinaccia grappa base. Lots of cherry and red berry aromas on the nose. Slightly herbal, but a well-balanced approach. Thin, with a constant switch between sweet and dry from the dominating stewed cherry flavour on the palate. A growing dry spice on the long finish.

Nardini Bitter – 24%

Obtained by a mix of herbs and citrus, effectively grain alcohol and natural aroma of bitter Milano. Incredibly rich on the nose with plenty of forest floor mixed with vegetal and citrus aromas. Surprisingly mellow on the palate, with sweeter notes coming through, followed by bitter lemon and a clean finish of herbs.

Nardini Rosso – 24%

A combination of grain alcohol, natural aroma of bitter Milano and vermouth. Light with lots of subtle fresh lemon aromas, with a slight herbal note near the finish. Very light on the palate, with a thin sweetness. Herbal notes come through again on the lingering finish.

Nardini Rabarbaro – 19%

Grain alcohol with essence of rhubarb rhizome. Incredibly bold, rich notes of vegetal and rhubarb on the nose. Thin, with slight vegetal flavours coming through on the palate. Sweeter as it grows, with rhubarb bitterness making it an aromatic finish.

Nardini Amaro – 31%

Grain alcohol with bitter orange aroma, peppermint and gentian. Well balanced upon the nose with mint, liquorice and orange aromas coming through. Fresh, sweet flavours of peppermint and orange are present on the palate. A lingering bitterness on the finish.

A fantastic selection here, with suggested serves including the Rabarbaro mixed with soda water and a lemon peel, or the Acqua di Cedro over ice cream, fresh fruit or as a sorbet. Or perhaps one of these –

Camerino
Camerino

Camerino

Glass –

Rocks or Champagne flute

Ingredients –

35 ml Nardini Bianca
50 ml Freshly squeezed orange juice
60 ml Prosecco

Method –

Pour the grappa and orange juice into a shaker with ice and mix. Strain into a Champagne flute or rocks glass, top up with chilled Prosecco and stir gently.

Or maybe this from Mal Spence’s archives –

Inverso No.2

Glass –

Rocks

Ingredients – 

40 ml Nardini Amaro
20 ml Rum
Dash Bitters
Dash Sugar Syrup

Method – 

Combine all the ingredients over an ice filled rocks glass and stir.

I’ve been lucky enough to try a lot of the range, but there are one or two that have escaped me so far, including the highest abv expressions of 60% for both the original and Riserva, plus the brandy variation. But if you ever would like to go for something a little different, or indeed enjoy the tipples on the lower end of the ABV scale, grab yourselves some bottles for your drinks cabinet and imagine you’re in Italy!

© David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog/sites author and owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to David Marsland and Drinks Enthusiast with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.